Selected Publications

link to ORIC

  2023 Watkins, B., Schultheiß, J., Rafuna, A., Hintze, S., Meinke, P., Schoser, B. and Kröger, S. (2023) Degeneration of muscle spindles in a murine model of Pompe disease. Scientific Reports 13: 6555; DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-33543-y  
    Bornstein, B., Watkins, B., Passini, F.S., Blecher, R., Assaraf, E., Sui, X.M., Brumfeld, V., Tsoory, M., Kröger, S. and Zelzer, E. (2023). The mechanosensitive ion channel ASIC2 mediates both proprioceptive sensing and spinal alignment. Experimental Physiology DOI: 10.1113/EP090776  
  2022 Watkins, B., Schuster, H.M., Gerwin, L., Schoser, B. and Kröger, S. (2022) The effect of methocarbamol and mexiletine on murine muscle spindle function. Muscle Nerve 66: 96-105.  
    Jacquier, A., Risson, V., Simonet, T., Roussange, F., Lacoste, N., Ribault, S., Carras, J., Theuriet, J., Girard, E., Grosjean, I., Le Goff, L., Kröger, S., Meltoranta, J., Bauche, S., Sternberg, D., Fournier, E., Kostera-Pruszczyk, A., O'Connor, E., Eymard, B., Lochmüller, H., Martinat, C. and Schaeffer, L. (2022) Severe congenital myasthenic syndromes caused by agrin mutations affecting secretion by motoneurons. Acta Neuropathologica 144: 707-731.  
  2021 Doppler, K., Hemprich, A., Haarmann, A., Brecht, I., Franke, M., Kröger, S., Villmann, C. and Sommer, C. (2021) Autoantibodies to cortactin and agrin in sera of patients with myasthenia gravis. Journal of Neuroimmunology 356: 577588.  

Kröger S. and Watkins B. (2021) Muscle spindle function in healthy and diseased muscle.Skeletal Muscle 11: 3.

    Zhang Y., Otto P., Qin L., Eiber N., Hashemolhosseini S., Kröger S. and Brinkmeier H. (2021) Methocarbamol blocks muscular Nav 1.4 channels and decreases isometric force of mouse muscles. Muscle & Nerve 63: 141-150.  


Gerwin, L., Rossmanith, S., Haupt, C., Schultheiß, J., Brinkmeier, H., Bittner, R.E. and Kröger, S. (2020)  Impaired muscle spindle function in murine models of muscular dystrophy. The Journal of Physiology 598:1591-1609.

2019 Gerwin, L., Haupt, C., Wilkinson, K.A., and Kröger, S. (2019). Acetylcholine receptors in the equatorial region of intrafusal muscle fibres modulate mouse muscle spindle sensitivity. The Journal of Physiology 597: 1993-2006.

Handara, G., and Kröger, S. (2019). Alternative splicing and the intracellular domain mediate TM-agrin's ability to differentially regulate the density of excitatory and inhibitory synapse-like specializations in developing CNS neurons. Neuroscience 419: 60-71.

Handara, G., Hetsch, F. J. A., Jüttner, R., Schick, A., Haupt, C., Rathjen, F. G., and Kröger, S. (2019) The role of agrin, Lrp4 and MuSK during dendritic arborization and synaptogenesis in cultured embryonic CNS neurons. Developmenal Biology 445: 54-67.  
  2018 Kröger, S. (2018) Proprioception 2.0: novel functions for muscle spindles. Current Opinion in Neurology 31: 592-598.  
  2017 Karakatsani, A., Marichal, N., Urban, S., Kalamakis, G., Ghanem, A., Schick, A., Zhang, Y., Conzelmann, K. K., Ruegg, M. A., Berninger, B., Ruiz de Almodovar, C., Gascon, S., and Kröger, S. (2017) Neuronal LRP4 regulates synapse formation in the developing CNS. Development 144: 4604-4615.  
    Schmidt, N., Basu, S., Kröger, S., and Brenner, H. R. (2017) A Cell Culture System to Investigate the Presynaptic Control of Subsynaptic Membrane Differentiation at the Neuromuscular Junction. Methods in Molecular Biology 1538, 3-11.  
  2016 Schneider, S., Gruart, A., Grade, S., Zhang, Y., Kröger, S., Kirchhoff, F., Eichele, G., Delgado Garcia, J. M., and Dimou, L. (2016) Decrease in newly generated oligodendrocytes leads to motor dysfunctions and changed myelin structures that can be rescued by transplanted cells. Glia 64: 2201-2218.  
  2015 Zhang Y., Lin S., Karakatsani A., Rüegg M., Kröger S. (2015) Differential regulation of AChR clustering in the polar and equatorial region of murine muscle spindles. European Journal of Neuroscience 41: 69-78.  
  2014 Gasperi C., Melms A., Schoser B., Zhang Y., Meltoranta J., Risson V., Schaeffer L., Schalke B., Kröger S. (2014) Anti-Agrin Autoantibodies in Myasthenia gravis. Neurology 82: 1976-1983.  
    Zhang Y., Wesolowska M., Karakatsani A., Wizemann V., Kröger S. (2014) Formation of cholinergic synapse-like specializations at developing murine muscle spindles. Developmental Biology 393: 227-235.  
    Steiner E., Enzmann G.U., Lyck R., Lin S., Rüegg M.A., Kröger S., Engelhardt B. (2014) The heparan sulfate proteoglycan agrin contributes to barrier properties of mouse brain endothelial cells by stabilizing adherens junctions. Cell and Tissue Research 358: 465-479.  
  2013 Choi, H.Y., Liu, Y., Tennert, C., Sugiura, Y., Karakatsani, A., Kröger, S., Johnson, E.B., Hammer, R.E., Lin, W., Herz, J., (2013) APP interacts with LRP4 and agrin to coordinate the development of the neuromuscular junction in mice. Elife 20: 2:e00220. doi: 10.755/eLife.00220.  
  2012 Pevzner, A., Schoser, B.,Peters, K., Cosma, N.C., Karakatsani, A., Schalke, B., Melms, A., and Kröger, S. (2012). Anti-LRP4 autoantibodies in AChR- and MuSK-antibody-negative myasthenia gravis. Journal of Neurology 259: 427-435.  
    Burk, K., Desoeuvre, A., Boutin, C., Smith, M.A., Kröger, S., Bosio, A., Tiveron, M.C., and Cremer, H. (2012). Agrin-signaling is necessary for the integration of newly generated neurons in the adult olfactory bulb. Journal of Neuroscience 32: 3759-3764.  
  2010 Patzke C., Max K.E.A., Behlke J., Schreiber J., Schmidt H., Dorner A., Kröger S., Henning M., Otto A., Heinemann U., and Rathjen F.G. (2010) The coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor reveals complex homophilic and heterophilic interactions on neural cells. Journal of Neuroscience 30: 2897-2910.  

Porten E., Seliger B., Schneider V.A., Wöll S., Stangel D., Ramseger R., and Kröger S. (2010) The process-inducing activity of transmemgrane agrin requires follistatin-like domains. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 285: 3114-3125.

  2009 Kröger,S. and Pfister,H. (2009) Agrin in the nervous system - synaptogenesis and beyond. Future Neurology 4: 67-86
    Ramseger,R., White,R., and Kröger,S. (2009) Transmembrane form agrin-induced process formation requires lipid rafts and the activation of Fyn and MAPK. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 284: 7697-7705.
    Jimenez-Mallebrera C., Torelli S., Feng L., Kim J., Godfrey C., Clement E., Mein R., Abbs S., Brown S.C., Campbell K.P., Kröger S., Talim B., Topaloglu H., Quinlivan R., Roper H., Childs A.M., Kinali M., Sewry C.A., and Muntoni F. (2009) A comparative study of alpha-dystroglycan glycosylation in dystroglycanopathies suggests that the hypoglycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan does not consistently correlate with clinical severity. Brain Pathology 19: 596-611.  
  2008 Yamamoto,T.; Kato,Y.; Kawaguchi-Niida,M.; Shibata,N.; Osawa,M.; Saito,K.; Kröger,S.; and Kobayashi,M. (2008) Characteristics of neurons and glia in the brain of Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy. Acta Myologica 27: 9-13


  2007 Schröder, J.E.; Tegeler, M.; Großhans, U.; Porten, E.; Blank, M.; Lee, J.; Esapa, C.; Blake, D.J., and Kröger, S. (2007) Dystroglycan regulates structure, proliferation and differentiation of neuroepithelial cells in the developing vertebrate CNS. Developmental Biology 307: 62-78  
    Noell, S., Fallier-Becker, P., Becker, C., Kröger, S., Mack, A.F., and Wolburg, H. (2007) Effects of agrin on the expression and distribution of the water channel protein aquaporin-4 and volume regulation in cultured astrocytes. European Journal of Neuroscience 26: 2109-2118


Annies, M., Bittcher, G., Ramseger, R., Löschinger, J., Wöll, S., Porten, E., Abraham, C., Rüegg, M.A., and Kröger, S. (2006) Clustering of transmembrane-agrin induces filopodia-like processes on axons and dendrites. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 31: 515-524.


Jastrow. H., Koulen, P., Altrock, W.D., and Kröger, S. (2006) Identification of a b-dystroglycan immunoreactive sub-compartment in photoreceptor terminals. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 47: 17-24.

  2005 Saito, F., Blank, M., Schröder, J., M anya, H., Shimizu, T., Campbell, K.P., Endo, T., Mizutani, M., Kröger, S. , and Matsumura, M. (2005) Aberrant glycosylation of a-dystroglycan causes defective binding of laminin in the muscle of chicken muscular dystrophy. FEBS Letters 579: 2359-2363 .  

Schnepp A., Lindgren P., Hülsmann H., Kröger S, Paulsson M., and Hartmann U. (2005) Mouse testican-2: Expression, glycosylation and effects on neurite outgrowth. Journal of Biological Chemistry 280: 11274-11280.

  2004 Saito, F., Blank, M., Schröder, J., Manya, H., Shimizu, T., Campbell, K.P., Endo, T., Mizutani, M., Kröger, S., and Matsumura, K. (2004) Aberrant glycosylation and defective laminin-binding of alpha-dystroglycan in chicken muscular dystrophy. Neuromuscular Disorders 14: 603-604.
    Brown, S.C., Torelli, S., Brockington, M., Yuva, Y., Jimenez, C., Feng, L., Anderson, L., Ugo, I., Kröger, S., Bushby, K., Voit, T., Sewry, C., and Muntoni, F. (2004) Abnormalities in a-Dystroglycan Expression in MDC1C and LGMD2I Muscular Dystrophies. American Journal of Pathology 164: 727-737.  
    Warth A., Kröger, S., and Wolburg, H. (2004) Loss of agrin immunoreactivity from brain capillary basal laminae correlates with the redistribution of aquaporin-4 in human glioblastoma multiforme. Acta Neuropathologica 207: 311-318.  
    Herzog, C., Has, C., Franzke, C.-W., Echtermeyer, F.G., Kröger, S., Gustafsson, E., Fässler, R., and Bruckner-Tuderman, L. (2004) Dystroglycan in skin and cutaneous cells: b-subunit is shed from the cell surface. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 122: 1372-1380.  
  2003 Esapa, C.T., Bentham, G.R.B., Schröder, J.E., Kröger, S., and Blake, D.J. (2003) The effects of post-translational processing on dystroglycan synthesis and trafficking. FEBS Letters, 555: 209-216.  
  2002 Annies, M., and Kröger, S. (2002) Isoform pattern and AChR aggregation activity of agrin expressed by embryonic chick retinal ganglion neurons. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 20: 525-535.

    Esapa, C. T., Benson M. A., Schröder, J. E., Martin-Rendon, E., Brockington, M., Brown, S.C., Muntoni, F., Kröger, S., and Blake, D.J. (2002) Functional requirements for fukutin-related protein in the Golgi apparatus. Human Molecular Genetics 11: 3319-3331.

    Kröger, S., and Schröder, J. E. (2002) Agrin in the CNS: New roles for a synapse organizer. News in Physiological Science 17: 207-212.

    Rascher, G., Fischmann, A., Kröger, S., Duffner, F., Grote, E. H., and Wolburg, H. (2002) Extracellular matrix and the blood-brain barrier in glioblastoma multiforme: spatial segregation of tenascin and agrin. Acta Neuropathologica, 104: 85-91.


Blank, M., Blake, D.J. uand Kröger, S. (2002) Molecular heterogeneity of dystrophin-like complexes in the developing and adult retina. Neuroscience, 111: 259-273.

    Kröger, S. (2002) Agrin: ein Hauptregulator der Synapsenbildung. BIOforum 12: 49-51  
  2001 Kröger, S. (2001) Extracellular signals regulating nervous system development. In: The Neurosciences at the Turn of the Century. Seite 669-672; Ed. N. Elsner und G. W. Kreutzberg; Thieme Verlag Stuttgart

    Neumann F.R., Bittcher, G., Annies, M. Schumacher, B. Kröger, S., and Ruegg, M.A. (2001) An alternative amino-terminus expressed in the central nervous system converts agrin to a type II transmembrane protein. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 17: 208-225.

    Yard, B. A., Kahlert, S., Engelleiter, R., Resch, S., Waldherr, R., Groffen, A. J., van den Heuvel, L. P. W. J., van der Born, J., Berden, J. H. M., Kröger, S., Hafner, M., and van der Woude, F. J. (2001). Decreased glomerular expression of agrin in diabetic nephropathy and podocytes, cultured in high glucose medium. Experimental Nephrology 9: 214-222.


Schröder, J.E., Tegeler, M., and Kröger, S. (2001) Die molekulare Grundlage von Muskeldystrophien. BioForum 11: 2-4.

  2000 Blake, D.J., and Kröger, S. (2000) The neurobiology of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: learning lessons from muscle? Trends in Neurosciences 23: 92-99.

Herrmann, R., Straub V., Blank, M., Kutzick, C., Franke, N., Neuen Jacob, E., Lenard, H.-G., Kröger, S., and Voit, T. (2000) Dissociation of the dystroglycan-complex in caveolin-3-deficient Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy. Human Molecular Genetics 9: 2335-2340.

  1999 Hering, H. and Kröger, S. (1999) Synapse formation and agrin expression in stratospheroid cultures from embryonic chick retina. Developmental Biology 214: 412-428.

Koulen, P., Honig, L.S., Fletcher, E.L. and Kröger, S. (1999) Expression, distribution, and ultrastructural localization of the synapse-organizing molecule agrin in the mature avian retina. European Journal of Neuroscience 11: 4188-4196.

Blank, M., Koulen, P., Blake, D., and Kröger, S. (1999) Dystrophin and beta-dystroglycan in photoreceptor terminals from normal and mdx3Cv mouse retinae. European Journal of Neuroscience 11: 2121-2133.

  1998 Koulen, P., Blank, M., and Kröger, S. (1998) Differential distribution of b-dystroglycan in rabbit and rat retina. Journal of Neuroscience Research 51: 735-747.  
  1997 Kröger, S. (1997) Differential distribution of agrin isoforms in the developing and adult avian retina. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 10: 149-161.

Blank, M., Koulen, P., and Kröger, S. (1997) Subcellular concentration of b-dystroglycan in photoreceptor terminals and Müller glial cells of the chick retina. Journal of Comparative Neurology 389: 668-678.

Galarraga, E., and Kröger, S. (1997) Connections between neuroscientists from Europe and Latin America reinforced. Trends in Neurosciences 20: 549-551.

Sorokin, L. M., Pausch, F., Frieser, M., Kröger, S., Ohage, E., and Deutzmann, R. (1997) Developmental regulation of the laminin a5 chain suggests a role in epithelial and endothelial cell maturation. Developmental Biology 189: 285-300.
Kröger, S. (1997) Molecular determinants involved in nervous system development. In: From Membrane to Mind. Seite 430-433; N. Elsner und H. Wässle; Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart.

Reiss, Y., Layer, P. G., and Kröger, S. (1997) Butyrylcholinesterase-positive cells of the developing chicken retina that are noncholinergic and GABA positive. Developmental Brain Research 100: 62-72.

Koulen, P., Brandtstätter, J. H., Kröger, S., Enz, R., Bormann, J., and Wässle, H. (1997) Immunocytochemical localization of the GABAC receptor r-subunits in the cat, goldfish and chicken retina. Journal of Comparative Neurology 380: 520-532.
  1996 Mann, S., and Kröger, S. (1996) Agrin is synthesized by retinal cells and colocalizes with gephyrin. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 8: 1-13.

Hering, H., and Kröger, S. (1996) Formation of synaptic specializations in the inner plexiform layer of the developing chick retina. Journal of Comparative Neurology 375: 393-405.

Reiss, Y., Kröger, S., Grassi, J., Tsim, K.W.K., Willbold, E., and Layer, P.G. (1996) Extracellular and asymmetric forms of acetylcholinesterase are expressed on cholinergic and non-cholinergic terminal neuropil of the developing chick retina. Cell and Tissue Research 286: 13-22.

Jones, G., Herczeg, A., Ruegg, M.A., Lichtsteiner, M., Kröger, S., and Brenner, H.R. (1996) Substrate-bound agrin induces expression of acetylcholine receptor e-subunit gene in cultured mammalian muscle cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (USA) 93: 5985-5990.

Kröger, S., and Mann, S. (1996) Biochemical and functional characterization of basal lamina-bound agrin in the central nervous system. European Journal of Neuroscience 8: 500-509.

Kirsch, J., and Kröger, S. (1996) Postsynaptic anchoring of receptors: A cellular approach to neuronal and muscular sensitivity. The Neuroscientist 2: 100-108.

Kröger, S., Horton, S.E., and Honig, L.S. (1996) The developing avian retina expresses agrin isoforms during development. Journal of Neurobiology 29: 165-182.
  1995 Tsen, G. Halfter, W. Kröger, S., and Cole, G.J. (1995) Agrin is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Journal of Biological Chemistry 270: 3392-3399.  
  1992 McMahan, U.J., Horton, S.E., Werle, M.J., Honig, L.S., Kröger, S., Ruegg, M.A., and Escher, G. (1992) Agrin isoforms and their role in synaptogenesis. Current Oppinion in Cell Biology 4: 869-874.

Ruegg, M.A., Tsim, K.W.K., Horton, S.E., Kröger, S., und McMahan, U.J. (1992) The agrin gene codes for a family of basal lamina proteins that differ in function and distribution. Neuron 8: 691-699.

Tsim, K.W.K., Ruegg, M.A., Escher, G., Kröger, S., and McMahan, U.J. (1992). cDNA that encodes active agrin. Neuron 8: 677-689.
  1991 Kröger, S., and Walter, J. (1991). Molecular mechanisms separating two axonal pathways during development of the avian optic tectum. Neuron 6: 291-303.
  1990 Kröger, S., and Schwarz, U. (1990). The avian tectobulbar tract: Development, explant culture, and effects of antibodies on the pattern of neurite outgrowth. Journal of Neuroscience 10: 3118-3134.

Kröger, S., and Niehörster, L. (1990). Isolation, characterization and substrate properties of the external limiting membrane from the avian embryonic optic tectum. Journal of Neuroscience Research 27: 169-183.
  1987 Halfter, W., Reckhaus, W., and Kröger, S. (1987). Nondirected axonal growth on basal lamina from avian embryonic retina. Journal of Neuroscience 7: 3712-3722.